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Analysis of bee repellents in honey

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Journal of Apicultural Research
Vol. 27 (3) pp. 162-168
June 1988
Article Title

Analysis of bee repellents in honey


Suet Kwan And Peter Sporns


An analytical method for the analysis of bee repellent residues to 1 ppm in honey samples was developed. The method involved a single ether extraction of a water-diluted honey sample followed by gas chromatographic analysis. The bee repellent residues detected in the honey for each repellent included: butyric acid from butyric anhydride (Bee Go®); propionic acid from propionic anhydride; phenol from applied phenol, and benzoic acid from benzaldehyde. Quantification of benzoic acid in honey samples was hindered by the varying amounts of natural benzoic acid in honey. From field trials, it seemed that the use of phenol and propionic anhydride left considerably larger amounts of residue (averaging 6.6 ppm for phenol and 7.9 ppm for propionic anhydride) in honey than the use of butyric anhydride or benzaldehyde (most samples containing trace levels, < O.5 ppm).


Honey, bee repellents, residues

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