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Minerals in honey: environmental, geographical and botanical aspects.

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Journal of Apicultural Research
Vol. 46 (4) pp. 269-275
December 2007
Article Title
Minerals in honey: environmental, geographical and botanical aspects.
Stefan Bogdanov, Max Haldimann, Werner Luginbühl and Peter Gallmann
Honey usually contains a variety of mineral substances. Ninety five samples of known geographic and botanic origin were analyzed in order to detect possible contamination by common air pollution or other pathways. It was found that most elements correlate significantly with electrical conductivity. The contamination level of the toxic elements Pb and Cd measured in our study was low. There were differences between the honeys produced in the different areas only with regard to Fe and Cr content. The concentrations of the other trace elements measured in the present study, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe, were similar to the values found in other recent studies. All of the trace elements determined in this work can be both from natural sources (soil, plants) and anthropogenic sources. Pb, Cd, and Zn especially, but also Cu, Cr, and Ni, are well known as potential air or soil contaminants of anthropogenic origin, but are of course also found as natural ingredients of soil minerals, as are also Fe and Mn. Variation in trace element content in different honey types is primarily due to botanical origin rather than geographical and environmental exposition of nectar sources.
honey, minerals, trace elements, heavy metal contamination